Terminology

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This Page contains a lot of useful Phraseology/Terminology on Veterinary Dentistry[edit]


Surfaces of Teeth and Directions in the Mouth[edit]


Vestibular
This the correct term referring to the surface of the tooth facing the vestibule or lips; buccal and labial are acceptable alternatives.

Lingual/Palatal

Lingual surface refers to the surface of a mandibular or maxillary tooth facing the tongue.
Palatal can also be used when referring to the lingual surface of maxillary teeth.
Mesial/Distal
Mesial and distal are terms applicable to tooth surfaces.
The mesial surface of the first incisor is next to the median plane; on other teeth it is directed toward the first incisor. The distal surface is opposite from the mesial surface.
Rostral/Caudal
Rostral and caudal are the positional and directional anatomical terms applicable to the head in a sagittal plane in non-human vertebrates.
Rostral refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the most forward structure of the head. Caudal refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the tail.


Generations of Teeth in Diphyodont Species[edit]


Deciduous/permanent
These are the anatomically correct terms to denote the two generations of teeth in diphyodont species. It is acceptable to use "primary" instead of deciduous in communicating with clients.
“Deciduous” is the scientific term used in biology, as well as in comparative anatomy and anthropology for both animal and plant structures which are regularly shed. As a substitute for temporary, the term “primary” appeared early in the literature and it is listed in both Anthony's and Otofy's dictionaries 1922-23. The style of the Journal of the ADA requires the term deciduous in all literature designed for the profession and allows primary only in discourse for non-professional persons.
Deciduous Dentition
The Period in which only deciduous teeth are present. The mixed dentition period is that period during which both deciduous and permanent teeth are present. The permanent dentition period is that period during which only permanent teeth are present.
The term "persistent deciduous tooth" is etymologically correct, although the term "retained deciduous tooth" is commonly used. The latter term, however, can be confused with an unerupted deciduous tooth.


The Jaws[edit]


Maxillas/Maxillae and Mandibles
All mammals have two maxillas (or maxillae) and two mandibles. The adjective "maxillary" is often used in a wider sense, e.g., "maxillary fractures", to include other facial bones, in addition to the maxillary bone proper.
Mandibula/Mandible
All animals have two mandibles, not one -- removing one entire mandible therefore is a “mandibulectomy”, not a “hemimandibulectomy”
Corpus mandibulae/Body of the mandible
The part that carries the teeth - often incorrectly referred to as “horizontal ramus”
Pars incisiva/Incisive part
The part that carries the incisors
Pars molaris/Molar part
The part that carries the premolars and molars – “premolar-molar part” would probably have been more accurate
Margo alveolaris/Alveolar margin
Often incorrectly referred to as “alveolar crest”
Margo ventralis/Ventral margin
Canalis mandibulae/Mandibular canal
Contains only the neurovascular bundle – often incorrectly referred to as the “medullary cavity” of the mandible
Foramina mentalia/Mental foramens or foramina
Rostral, middle or caudal mental foramina in the dog and cat
Ramus mandibulae/Ramus of the mandible
The part that carries the 3 processes – often incorrectly referred to as the “vertical ramus”
Processus angularis/angulus mandibulae/Angular process/angle of the mandible
Processus coronoideus/Coronoid process
Processus condylaris/Condylar process
Often incorrectly referred to as “condyloid process”
Caput mandibulae/Head of the mandible
The articulating part of the condylar process
Incisura mandibulae/Mandibular notch
The notch on the caudal aspect,between the coronoid and condylar processes - not to be confused with the facial vascular notch
Incisura vasorum facialium/Facial vascular notch
Shallow indentation on the ventral aspect of the mandible, rostral to the angular process - poorly defined in carnivores
Foramen mandibulae/Mandibular foramen
The entrance to the mandibular canal
Articulatio temporomandibularis/Temporomandibular joint
Discus articularis/Articular disk
Often incorrectly referred to as “meniscus”
Articulatio intermandibularis/Intermandibular joint
Synchondrosis intermandibularis/Mandibular symphysis
Scapino RP. The third joint of the canine jaw. Journal of Morphology 1965;116:23-50.
Collum mandibulae/Neck of the mandible
The narrow part of the condylar process supporting the head


Definitions of Stage, Grade and Index[edit]


Stage
The assessment of the extent of pathological lesions in the course of a disease that is likely to be progressive. E.g., stages of periodontal disease, staging of oral tumors, etc.
Grade
The quantitative assessment of the degree of severity of a disease or abnormal condition at the time of diagnosis, irrespective of whether the disease is progressive e.g., a grade 2 mast cell tumor (based on mitotic figures).
Index
A quantitative expression of predefined diagnostic criteria whereby the presence and/or severity of pathological conditions are recorded by assessing a numerical value e.g., gingival index, plaque index, etc.


Periodontal Disease Classification[edit]

Normal/(PD 0)
Clinically normal - no gingival inflammation or periodontitis clinically evident.
Stage 1/(PD 1)
Gingivitis only without attachment loss. The height and architecture of the alveolar margin are normal.
Stage 2/(PD 2)
Early periodontitis - less than 25% of attachment loss or at most, there is a stage 1 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth. There are early radiologic signs of periodontitis. The loss of periodontal attachment is less than 25% as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cemento-enamel junction relative to the length of the root.
Stage 3/(PD 3)
Moderate periodontitis - 25-50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cemento-enamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 2 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.
Stage 4/(PD 4)
Advanced periodontitis - more than 50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of AVDC Nomenclature Page 9 the distance of the alveolar margin from the cemento-enamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 3 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.


Furcation Involvement/Exposure[edit]


Stage 1 (F1, furcation involvement)
Exists when a periodontal probe extends less than half way under the crown in any direction of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss.
Stage 2 (F2, furcation involvement)
Exists when a periodontal probe extends greater than half way under the crown of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss but not through and through.
Stage 3 (F3, furcation exposure)
Exists when a periodontal probe extends under the crown of a multirooted tooth, through and through from one side of the furcation out the other.


Tooth Mobility[edit]


Stage 0/(M0)
Physiologic mobility up to 0.2 mm.
Stage 1/(M1)
The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.2 mm and up to 0.5 mm.
Stage 2/(M2)
The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.5 mm and up to 1.0 mm.
Stage 3/(M3)
The mobility is increased in any direction than axial over a distance exceeding 1.0 mm or any axial movement.

Dental Fracture Classification[edit]

Enamel infraction (EI)
An incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance.
Enamel fracture (EF)
A fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel.
Uncomplicated crown fracture (UCF)
A fracture of the crown brachydont and hypsodont teeth that does not expose the pulp.
Complicated crown fracture (CCF)
A fracture of the crown brachydont and hypsodont teeth that exposes the pulp.
Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (UCRF)
A fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp.
Complicated crown-root fracture (CCRF)
A fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp.
Root fracture (RF)
A fracture involving the root.


Classification of Tooth Resorption[edit]


Stage 1 (TR 1)
Mild dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel).
Stage 2 (TR 2)
That does not extend to the pulp cavity).
Stage 3 (TR 3)
Deep dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth retains its integrity.
Stage 4 (TR 4)
Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity
Stage 4 (TR 4A)
      Crown and root are equally affected;
Stage 4 (TR 4B)
      Crown is more severely affected than the root;
Stage 4 (TR 4C)
      Root is more severely affected than the crown.
Stage 5 (TR 5)
Remnants of dental hard tissue are visible only as irregular radiopacities,and gingival covering is complete.


Classification of Dental Occlusion in Dogs[edit]


Neutroclusion (Class 1 malocclusion; MAL/1)
A normal rostral-caudal relationship of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches with malposition of one or more individual

     teeth.

Mandibular distoclusion (Class 2 malocclusion; MAL/2)
An abnormal rostral-caudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes caudal to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch.
Mandibular mesioclusion (Class 3 malocclusion; MAL/3)
An abnormal rostral-caudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes rostral to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch.

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